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The Kingdoms of Thailand

The Sukhothai Kingdom

  • In the early 13th C, the territory around the Yom River in which lies Sukhothai and Si Satchanalai was ruled by Pho Khun Sinownamthom and later the Khmers. In the middle of the 13th C Khmer power in the region wained and a combination of Tai rulers in the region sacked the Khmer garrison and appointed Pho Khun Banglanghow to become King. He then took the title, Kamornteng Si Intratit, and become the first King of the Kingdom of Sukhothai in about 1250. This was the Phraruang dynasty which lasted 200 years until 1438 when the Kingdom of Ayuthaya absorbed the territory into its own. 
  • In the beginning the important cities were Si Satchanalai and vassal states along the Ping, Yom and Nan rivers, which flow through this basin. By the time of the 3rd King, King Ramkhamhaeng, the youngest son of Intradit, and as a result of his prestige and war power, the territory was expanded to include to the North, Nan, Phrae and parts of modern Laos to Luang Prabuang, to the South, Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Chainat and areas to the coast of Malaysia, to the East land across the Mekong to Vientaine in Laos and to the west land to the coast of present day Myanmar.


  • After the reign of Ramkamhaeng the extent of territory and or Sukhothai influence was not precise as some vassal states became independent or joined Ayuthaya or Lan Na. Before the arrival of the Tai, the area was inhabited by the Mon and ruled by the Khmer. Today one can see Khmer works of art and architecture constructed before the Kingdom of Sukhothai. 
  • After the formation of the Kingdom of Sukhothai, Khmer culture, art and religion still was an influence as it is to day. The design of religious places and the beliefs in Hinduism and Mahayan Buddhism reflect this. In 1283 King Ramkamkhaeng ordered the creation of the Thai alphabet and Sukhothai produced its own currency to facilitate trade. The map of Thailand opposite shows the Kingdom of Sukhothai in the late 13th C.


The Kings and leaders of Sukhothai Kingdom
  • King Sri Indraditya ( 1249 to 1257)
  • King Ban Muang (1257 to 1277)
  • King Ramkhamhaeng the Great (1277 to 1298)
  • King Pu Saisongkhram
  • King Loethai (1298 to 1347)
  • King Nguanamthom (1347)
  • King Phya Lithai or Thammaracha I (1347 to 1368)
  • King Thammaracha II or Phya Sai Leu Thai (1368 to 1399)
  • King Thammaracha III or Phya Sai Luthai (1399 to 1419)
  • King Thammaracha IV (1419 to 1438)