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North Thailand History Timeline

These dates highlight major events in North Thailand
  • 600 Tai Empire created in Yunnan, China (Nan Chao)
  • 660 Lamphun town created (Haripunchai) as capital of the Mon peoples Kingdom of Haripunchai, and the Mon Princess, Chamadevi from Lop Buri invited to rule
  • 880 creation of Mon Kingdom of Pegu in neighboring Burma,,BR> 1000 Viranga, rules the Lawa, the Austro-Asiatic people who since recorded history co inhabited the region with the Mon and H'tin
  • 1040 construction starts of Wat Haripunchai in Lamphun
  • 1096 creation of Phayao Kingdom by the Mon
  • 12th C the Lower North is populated by the Mon and ruled by the Khmers from Angkor
  • 12th C the Khmer construct Wats, Si Sawai, San Ta Pha Daeng and Phra Phai Luang in the Lower North
  • 1218 the Mon construct Wat Chamadevi in Lamphun, (one of Thailand's finest examples of Mon architecture)
  • 13th C Si Satchanalai founded in the Lower North
  • 1225 Tai peoples (Tai Yuan, Tai Lao, Tai Siamese, etc) leave Yunnan to move south to Thailand, Burma and Laos
  • 1238 a Tai prince, Indraditya, captures the Khmer garrison town of Sukhothai and creates the Kingdom of Sukhothai
  • 1250's Tai tribes now dominate the North Thailand region
  • 1253 the Mongols (having conquered India in 1192-6) invade and conquer Yunnan, in 1257 they invade Vietnam, in 1287 they capture Pagan (in Burma), and the Kingdoms of Lan Na, Sukhothai and Phayao form an alliance against the Mongols
  • 1259 Mangai becomes King of the Tai Yuan and Kingdom of Ngoen Yang making a capital at Chiang Rai in 1262, another at Fang in1268
  • 1281 Mangrai, the Tai King of Lan Na conquers the Mon Kingdom of Haripunchai
  • 1286 Mangrai incorporates Kingdom of Lampang into Lan Na
  • 1288 Mangari constructs a city at Wiang Kum Kam, (now a suburb of Chiang Mai City)
  • 1289 Mangrai forms an alliance with the Mon Empire of Pegu against the Mongols
  • 1292 Sukhothai King creates the first Thai alphabet created from Mon and Khmer script with Tai tonal marks (which is unlike that of the Tai Luang of Chiang Mai which is Indian based)
  • 1296 Mangrai constructs the City of Chiang Mai as the new Tai capital
  • 1297 Wat Chiang Man in Chiang Mai City, construction is commenced
  • 1328 Chiang Saen becomes a military center for Lan Na
  • 1338 Lan Na subjugates the Kingdom of Phayao
  • 1341 Chiang Mai fortifications in brick around the city commence
  • 1345 Wat Phra Singh constructed in Chiang Mai and King Ku Yu lays the foundation for the Golden age of Lan Na culture, art and architecture
  • 1347 Tai Empire of Ayuthaya is founded in Central Thailand and in 1349 the Kingdom of Sukhothai is subjugated to it
  • 1353 Kingdom of Lan Xang is founded in Laos by Prince Fa Ngum (now parts of North and East Thailand) (I'san)
  • 1368 Kingdom of Nan is created
  • 1371 Wat Suan Dok founded for the Sinhalese Buddhist Sect who become the major religious influence in North Thailand
  • 1405 invasion of Chiang Mai from Yunnan repelled
  • 1434 The Emerald Buddha is discovered in the Chedi of Wat Phta Kraeo at Chiang Rai and taken to Lampang (now in Bangkok)
  • 1447 The World Eighth Buddhist Council held at Wat Chet Yot with delegates from the rest of the Buddhist World
  • 1450 Kingdom of Nan captured and consolidated into Kingdom of Lan Na
  • 1461 Chiang Mai armies (Tai Yuan) capture Sukhothai but have to retreat to consolidate and repel another invasion from Yunnan
  • 1460-74 Si Satchanalai is occupied by the Tai Yuan of Chiang Mai
  • 1494-1515 period of war between the Siamese Tai and the Tai of Chiang Mai
  • 1545 earthquake hits Chiang Mai City and severely damages Wat Chedi Luang
  • 1551 Pegu Empire (Hamsavati) starts to conquer and subjugate the Tai Kingdoms (in Burma, Laos and Thailand)
  • 1558 Pegu Empire subjugates Chiang Mai without a battle
  • 1564 Pegu Empire conquers Ayuthaya for the first time then again in1569 until the Siamese Tai recapture it back in 1584
  • 1598 Siamese Tai from Ayuthaya (King Naresuan) expel the Burmese from Chiang Mai and in the 1600's there are various revolts in Lan Na against the Burmese
  • 1661 Narai of Ayuthaya briefly recaptures Chiang Mai City from the Burmese
  • 1703 Nan is sacked by the Burmese and in 1767 Ayuthaya  (a city of 1 million people) is sacked and destroyed forever by the Burmese
  • 1774 Siamese Tai from Bangkok under direction of Taksin (the avenger of the sacking of Ayuthaya) and led by Chao Phraya Chakri [ the future King of Siam ] supported by Chao Kawila (the local ruler of Lampang) with local Tai Yuan recapture Lampang and in 1776 recapture Chiang Mai City ending 218 years of Burmese subjugation of the region, (but the city of Chiang Mai is left deserted for 20 years)
  • 1796 Chao Kavila and the Bangkok Empire armies resettle Chiang Mai city, rebuild the fortifications, the moats, and the brick and earth ramparts
  • 1802 a Burmese attack on Chiang Mai is repelled
  • 1804 Chiang Saen was a Burmese stronghold and was then conquered by Chao Kawila, leaving the area of Chiang Kengtung (Burma) to be subjugated by the British Colonialists in the 19th C.
  • 1830's the Shan from Burma create the town of Mae Hong Son and Shan migration continues to Lan Na
  • 1865-90 30 years of the Haw Wars involving the Siamese armies
  • 1890's first Hmong migration to Lan Na
  • 1892 the Bangkok Empire incorporates Lan Na into the administrative unit of Monthon Phayap
  • 1893 French Colonialists take parts of Lan Na in the East and on the East Bank of the Mekong River for what is now Laos
  • 1900 first Akha people migration from Burma to Lan Na
  • 1902 Shan rebellion in Chiang Mai
  • 1904 Siam concedes West Bank of Mekong in Lan Na to France
  • 1931 Nan becomes part of Kingdom of Siam (Bangkok Empire)
  • 1932 Chiang Mai becomes a Province of Siam.